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William Gonzalez
William Gonzalez

Encyclopedia Of Laser Physics And Technology _HOT_


Dr. Rüdiger Paschotta, the author of the encyclopedia, offers a broad range of consulting services in topical areas like lasers, amplifiers, nonlinear optics and fiber optics via RP Photonics.His competence is available for development projects, or for tailored staff training courses performed at the customer's location.Also, he has developed powerful simulation software for work in laser technology, fiber optics and thin-film optics.




Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology



The RP Photonics Encyclopedia (formerly Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology) is an encyclopedia of optics and optoelectronics, laser technology, optical fibers, nonlinear optics, optical communications, imaging science, optical metrology, spectroscopy and ultrashort pulse physics.[1] It is available online as a free resource. An earlier version of the encyclopedia appeared as a two-volume book.[2] As of February 2020[update], the online version of the encyclopedia contains 938 articles.


Hosted by RP Photonics Consulting GmbH and compiled by Rüdiger Paschotta, this encylcopedia covers basic terminology and principles of laser physics and technology as well as topics in general optics and optoelectronics, nonlinear optics, quantum optics, fiber optics, and optical communications.


Written by scholars, Scholarpedia is a peer-reviewed, open access encyclopedia. The Encyclopedia of Physics is one of the focal areas and a portal page. It currently contains many articles, and many more are planned. There are several related encyclopedias, including coverage of condensed matter, nuclear physics, theoretical high energy physics, and statistical mechanics.


This comprehensive open-access encyclopedia, authored by Dr. Rüdiger Paschotta and provided by RP Photonics Consulting GmbH, explains the physical principles and common techniques in laser technology, while also covering major areas of fiber-optic technology and nonlinear optics, and addressing supplementary topics like ultrashort pulses, optical communications, general optics, optoelectronics, and quantum optics. Many references to selected scientific articles and textbooks aid further studies.


The development of physics over the past few centuries has increasingly enabled the development of numerous technologies that have revolutionized society. In the 17th century, Newton built on the results of Galileo and Descartes to start the quantitative science of mechanics. The fields of thermodynamics and electromagnetism were developed more gradually in the 18th and 19th centuries. Of the big physics breakthroughs in the 20th century, quantum mechanics has most clearly led to the widest range of new technologies. New scientific discovery and its conversion to technology, enabling new products, is typically a complex process. From an industry perspective, it is addressed through various R&D strategies, particularly those focused on optimization of return on investment (ROI) and the associated risk management. The evolution of such strategies has been driven by many diverse factors and related trends, including international markets, government policies, and scientific breakthroughs. As a result, many technology-creation initiatives have been based on various types of partnerships between industry, academia, and/or governments. Specific strategies guiding such partnerships are best understood in terms of how they have been developed and implemented within a particular industry. As a consequence, it is useful to consider case studies of strategic R&D partnerships involving the semiconductor industry, which provides a number of instructive examples illustrating strategies that have been successful over decades. There is a large quantity of literature on this subject, in books, journal articles, and online.


This is a partial list of the book citations to contributions of F. J. Duarte. These books focus on laser architecture, laser engineering, laser materials, laser optics, laser physics, laser technology, plus a number of laser applications including: biomedicine, laser isotope separation, material science, materials processing, medicine, microscopy, physics, spectroscopy, photochemistry, photobiology, and spectroscopy.


Low-loss optical fiber is lighter, more compact, and less expensive than the more traditional copper wire. Transcontinental and transoceanic optical fiber systems installed for telephone systems use directly modulated diode lasers operating at 1550 nm to generate the signals. Because even optical fiber generates some loss, the signals must be amplified periodically by repeaters, which also use laser technology. In the repeaters, a piece of optical fiber doped with erbium is pumped by a diode laser to optically amplify the original signal, which is launched back into the fiber link to continue its journey.


Low-loss optical fiber is lighter, more compact, and less expensive than the more traditional copper wire. Transcontinental and transoceanic optical fiber systems installed for telephone systems use directly modulated diode lasers operating at 1550 nm to generate the signals. Because even optical fiber generates some loss, the signals must be amplified periodically by repeaters, which also use laser technology. In the repeaters, a piece of optical fiber doped with erbium is pumped by a diode laser to optically amplify the original signal, which is launched back into the fiber link to continue its journey.


Laser technologies are used for a wide range of purposes in laser-based products, including CD players, DNA screening machines, forensic tools, missile guiding devices, mapping and topographic instruments, and surgical devices. A laser is basically an intense beam of light. Ordinary light is scattered in variable wavelengths and frequencies, whereas laser beams are highly organized light with all photons traveling in the same frequency and wavelength. Laser (or light amplification by stimulated emission radiation) is a technology that allows controlled photonic release from atoms in specific wavelengths, thus producing a directional monochromatic (singlecolor) light beam of high coherence (e.g., tightly organized photons with synchronized wave fronts of the same frequency). Forensic science applications of laser technologies include a wide range of devices and techniques, such as laser spectroscopy , interferometric measurements ( laser mapping systems), laser scanning, bullet trajectory projections, and laser photography .


Since their invention in the 1950s, lasers have found thousands of applications in manufacturing, communications, medicine, astronomy and the other sciences, and weaponry. A few outstanding military applications of laser technology are as follows:


Gould had even more to be upset about. In 1964 the famous Nobel Prize for physics was awarded to the men who had created the original designs for lasers. Three men shared the prize: Townes and the two Soviet scientists, Basov and Prokhorov. Again, Gould had been left out; and again, he refused to give up. Although he had to borrow large sums of money to continue the legal fight, it eventually paid off. In 1977 and 1979 Gould received patents for two small parts of the lasing process. Finally in 1988 the patent office granted him the major patent he had applied for back in 1959. And so, along with Townes, Schawlow, Maiman, Basov, and Prokhorov, Gould was at last recognized as one of the founding fathers of the laser.


Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation also known as LASER is a popular technology that has been used in many fields of study. Lasers which were first constructed in 1960 produce monochromatic light and use the process of stimulated emission to amplify light waves. This process causes an atom to become excited as energy is forced into the laser. Then as the atom falls back, it strikes another atom stimulating it to emit energy. This emission is in the form of a second wave that travels parallel and in step with the first wave.


Professor Perram is an experimentalist in the area of atomic, molecular, and optical physics. His research applications include high power gas lasers, laser material interactions, remote sensing and laser weapon systems. Research includes fundamental studies in spectroscopy and chemical kinetics, demonstration and characterization of new laser devices, the development of optical instruments and diagnostic techniques including hyperspectral imaging, and field observations of battlespace combustion events.


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