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Barcode Producer 6.6.5

Control of barcode scanning hardware is exclusive. When DataWedge is active, Scanner and Barcode APIs of apps such as Enterprise Browser and others will be inoperative. Likewise, when an app such as Enterprise Browser controls the scanning hardware, other apps (including DataWedge) are locked out. It is therefore important to understand how to take control of a device's scanner hardware and, if necessary, release it to other apps when scanning is complete.

Barcode Producer 6.6.5


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Plaque assays and acidification tests are microbiological methods that are economically accessible and sensitive enough for detection of phages in the dairy industry. These techniques are time consuming, but provide many practical data for both dairy plants and starter producers. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR), ELISA and flow cytometry-based methods have been designed for detecting phages and are often used to complement microbiology tests. However, they have still many drawbacks to be applied for routine analyses in the dairy industry [104].

The starter culture itself can be a source of phages, when strains contain temperate phages. Temperate phages are incorporated into the bacterial chromosome and their genome replicates in synchrony with the bacterial genome. Prophages are carried in many LAB strains. The analysis of bacterial genomes revealed that prophages are more widespread than previously considered [113-114]. Phages may be induced from lysogenic to lytic form by the manufacturing conditions. Serial subculturing of temperate phages in milk may result in their replacement by a virulent mutant. Prophage induction from multiple lysogenic starter culture strains has the potential to influence fermentation. Induction can occur under stress conditions, such as heat, salts, acidity, bacteriocins, starvation or UV [115-116], and can also occur naturally with a frequency of even up to 9% [117]. Starter culture producers make huge efforts to eliminate strains containing prophages using a screening assay for strain lysogeny. Usually, easily lysogenized strains are difficult to find in defined strain cultures. The main source of lysogenic strains are undefined cultures, which are still commonly used (for example, kefir grains). This is due to two main reasons: i) the exact strain composition of these starters is unknown; ii) elimination of lysogenic strains from undefined culture is very difficult.

Modern industrial fermentations increasingly rely on well-defined, direct vat inoculated (DVI), high concentrated (> 1010 cfu g-1) and product-optimized starters, containing from two to five phage-unrelated strains [131-132]. Market share of bulk starters (semi-direct inoculation) diminished very fast in the last two decades and does not exceeded 20% for dairy beverages and 60% for cheese of the total global processed milk. The defined cultures have been widely adapted in large-scale production facilities due to the significant degree of control over fermentation processes and complementary fermentation properties, such as rapid acidification, gas formation, texturization, and development of flavor and aroma compounds. Each defined culture is designed in two or three phage-unrelated options, which can consistently enable producers to obtain high quality standard products. Rotation of defined phage-unrelated cultures is an efficient phage control method. Usually the rotation strategy in big dairy plants is elaborated in tight collaboration with culture suppliers based on individual phage monitoring programs. Ideally, sterilized products or whey samples are delivered on a routine basis at agreed intervals to the phage lab of the culture supplier. In longer perspective, successful cooperation of culture suppliers and users in monitoring different culture rotation strategies allows designing sequences of culture rotation and safe intervals between rotations as well as elaborate the cleaning and disinfection strategy adapted to specific dairy environments (Fig.2). 041b061a72




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